Chapter 3 Ethics Egoism There are several theories about the principle of the GOOD that would serve human decision making in reaching a conclusion as to what is the morally correct thing to do. One approach or group of theories is known as being Teleological. One of the most basic of consequences is the impact on people and one of the most basic of all values for determining whether something is good or not is the pleasure that it brings to someone. One is based on pleasure to one self. Psychological Egoism Argument For: Human agents always, at least on a deep-down level, are all egoists insofar as our behavior, explainable in terms of our beliefs and desires, is always aimed at what we believe is our greatest good Baier, , p. Objection: The psychological egoist confuses egoistic desires with motivation.
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Samuktilar If it is a person who is set up as the great arbitrator of the public, then it is uncertain if there can be a guarantee that he or she is embodying or arguing for an impartial standard of the good and not for his or her own particular interest. One might argue that it is the way rgoism pain feels — its badness — and not any connection between me and the eglism that gives me reason to alleviate it.
Lastly, parental care might be explained by a combination of these mechanisms. When I make an imprudent choice, this does not count against ethical egoism, and in favor of a theory recommending imprudence.
Utilitarians, for example, agree about these facts. I do not, for example, escape a duty to save a drowning person, when I can easily do so, just because the drowning person or anyone watching happens never to be able to offer fruitful cooperation or retaliation.
These worries are not decisive. The teacher could conceivably free-ride on the tougher bair of the rest of the department or university and not worry about the negative consequences of a diminished reputation to either. George Allen and Unwin. It seems reasonable for me to care specially about Aand indeed to say that A is identical to me. Two arguments are egois. This argument has drawbacks. Even if evolutionary arguments can be met, however, psychological egoism faces the problems noted earlier.
Moralists aim primarily not at knowledge but at the ability to draw, on their own, true moral conclusions from the evidence.
Academic Tools How to cite this entry. These moral sentiments include love, friendship, compassion, and gratitude. Egoism Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy But there is at least reason to doubt the historical record.
It is safer, and seemingly feasible, to remain an egoist while cooperating in most cases. It is distinct from psychological egoism according to which people are motivated only to act in their own self-interest and ethical egoism that moral agents ought only to do what is in their own self-interest.
A common objection to psychological egoism, made famously by Joseph Butler, is that I must desire things other than my own welfare in order to get welfare. What brings the highest payoff to bajer is not necessarily what brings the highest payoff to those helped. A parallel analysis of psychological altruism thus results in opposing conclusions to psychological egoism. There are also variants which make the maximization sgoism self-interest necessary but not sufficient, or sufficient but not necessary, for an action to be rational.
The rational egoist must argue that hers is a case where preferences are decisive. The egoistic mechanism is less reliable for several reasons: Welfare results from my action, but cannot be the only aim of my action.
One might hold one particular objective baoer of self-interest, according to which my welfare lies in possessing the virtues required by standard moral theories. For many of baifr worries, and others, see Stich, Doris and Roedder Arguably, the critic continues, the two have no possible resolution, and must, therefore, fight for the water.
Kurt Baier, Egoism — PhilPapers With no recourse to arbitration they must either accept an equal share of the water, which would comply with rational egoism. Replacing psychological with predominant egoism loses the key claim that it is impossible to motivate anyone to make an uncompensated sacrifice.
And if my being an individual is important, this cuts against the importance of taking up an impartial point of view just as it cuts against the importance of taking up the point of view of various groups. Related Posts.
Five types of egoism distinguished by Kurt Baier are also presented: common-sense egoism, psychological egoism, egoism as a means to the common good, rational egoism and ethical egoism. I try to justify the opinion that egoism as a monistic standpoint is wrong and that self-interest motivation can be interpreted as a by-motivation only, so in the way which is different from egoism. W: Przewodnik po etyce, red. Peter Singer, wyd. Baier Kurt. Czung Hun.
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References and Further Reading Aristotle. Rational egoism — Wikipedia Similarly, if the impartial point of view is defended as non-arbitrary because it makes no distinctions, both the point of view of various groups and my individual point of view are suspect. Macmillan, Sermons I and XI. If it is an impartial standard that sets the limit, one that can be indicated by any reasonable person, then it behooves the philosopher to explain the nature of that standard.