ENGLISH INTONATION J.C.WELLS PDF

Richard Nordquist is professor emeritus of rhetoric and English at Georgia Southern University and the author of several university-level grammar and composition textbooks. Richard Nordquist Updated March 04, In phonetics , an intonation phrase is a stretch or chunk of spoken material that has its own intonation pattern or tune. The intonation phrase IP is the basic unit of intonation. In a phonetic analysis, the vertical bar symbol is used to represent the boundary between two intonation phrases. Examples and Observations "When speakers produce words in a row, we can usually observe that they are structured: individual words are grouped together to form an intonation phrase

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Richard Nordquist is professor emeritus of rhetoric and English at Georgia Southern University and the author of several university-level grammar and composition textbooks.

Richard Nordquist Updated March 04, In phonetics , an intonation phrase is a stretch or chunk of spoken material that has its own intonation pattern or tune. The intonation phrase IP is the basic unit of intonation.

In a phonetic analysis, the vertical bar symbol is used to represent the boundary between two intonation phrases. Examples and Observations "When speakers produce words in a row, we can usually observe that they are structured: individual words are grouped together to form an intonation phrase Intonation phrases can coincide with breath groups Often a breath group contains more than one intonation phrase.

As with all other phonological units, it is assumed that speakers have a mental representation of intonation phrases, i. Some utterances might contain just one intonation phrase, others might contain several of them. Moreover, speakers can put utterances together to form larger stretches of speech or discourse Consider utterances 11a and 11b: 11a He washed and fed the dog.

Peter Lang, Intonation Contours "Intonation often does serve to convey information of a broadly meaningful nature. For example, the falling pitch we hear at the end of a statement in English such as Fred parked the car signals that the utterance is complete.

For this reason, falling intonation at the end of an utterance is called a terminal intonation contour. Conversely, a rising or level intonation, called a nonterminal intonation contour, often signals incompleteness. Nonterminal contours are often heard in the nonfinal forms found in lists and telephone numbers. There are many cases where different kinds of chunking are possible. Thus the speaker may present the material as two, or three, pieces of information rather than a single piece. This is tonality or chunking.

Wells, English Intonation: An Introduction. Cambridge University Press, The Position of Intonation Phrase Boundaries "The position of intonation phrase boundaries shows a good amount of variability. These have been studied in English on the basis of positions of possible pauses within clauses Selkirk b, Taglicht and references there and positions of obligatory pauses Downing The core result is that root clauses, and only these, are bounded by obligatory intonation phrase breaks.

Root clauses are clauses [CPs] not imbedded inside of a higher clause that has a subject and a predicate. Cambridge University Press,

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English intonation

Intonation In every language of the world, in addition to speaking with consonants and vowels, we also vary the loudness, rhythm and musical pitch of our speech to transmit information. Many languages use these suprasegmental mechanisms as stress, "accent" or tone, but those uses are lexical or morphological, part of the words themselves. The most important element of prosody is pitch variation - melody - which we call intonation. In written language, we try to indicate prosody with punctuation - the period, comma, question mark, exclamation point and so on - and also with typography : boldface, underlining or small caps. These mechanisms are all relatively new; even the space between words was only invented in the 7th century! Instead of these meaning-based symbols, Musa offers a sound-based system of punctuation using the six accent marks without accompanying vowels. In other words, written Musa communicates the suprasegmental features of language the same way that speech does: by indicating the intonation.

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Intonation Phrases in Phonetics

This accessible introduction shows students how to recognize and reproduce the intonation patterns of English, providing clear explanations of what they mean and how they are used. It looks in particular at three key functions of intonation - to express our attitude, to Intonation - the rise and fall of pitch in our voices - plays a crucial role in how we express meaning. It looks in particular at three key functions of intonation - to express our attitude, to structure our messages to one another, and to focus attention on particular parts of what we are saying. An invaluable guide to how English intonation works, it is complete with extensive exercises, drills and practice material, encouraging students to produce and understand the intonation patterns for themselves.

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