Jahrhundert[ Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten ] Die Geschichte von Hasankeyf wird erst in den ersten Jahrhunderten nach christlicher Zeitrechnung greifbar. Der Ort lag in jenem Teil Nord mesopotamiens , den seit dem 3. Man nannte diese Grenzfestung Kiphas und konnte die Sassaniden in den Folgejahren zumeist abwehren; erst gelang diesen unter Chosrau II. Wohl , im Laufe der islamischen Expansion , eroberten die Araber den Ort.
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Toponymy[ edit ] Hasankeyf is an ancient settlement that has borne many names from a variety of cultures during its history. The variety of these names is compounded by the many ways that non-Latin alphabets such as Syriac and Arabic can be transliterated. Underlying these many names is much continuity between cultures in the basic identification of the site. Western reports about the town before the 20th century refer to it by various names that are transliterated from Arabic or Ottoman Turkish.
Lucas Ingigian. This version appears occasionally in foreign reports in the mid 20th-century but only becomes prevalent after about Between the 9th and 7th centuries BC it was part of the Neo-Assyrian Empire , and by the mid-6th century it was part of the Median empire.
For a time the town became the capital of the Roman province of Arzanene , although Nisibis was the headquarters of the Dux Mesopotamiae. This included 15 castles, along with the cities of Singara and Nisibis , but not their inhabitants, and the fortress of Castra Maurorum. Now the border with Persia ran along the Tigris and the legionnaires at Kiphas were stationed right on it. Rescue excavations from to uncovered evidence of the base of a Roman gateway to the upper city, a row of shops from the late Roman period, and Roman floor and wall mosaics.
Early in the conflict they occupied Kiphas along with Mardin , Dara and probably the rest of the Tur Abdin, and these were held for most of the rest of the war. Writing between about and , the Byzantine geographer George of Cyprus mentions Cepha as a fortress in the Mesopotamia section of his Descriptio Orbis Romani.
Kiphas appears most likely to have been captured during the Muslim conquest of Armenia in , shortly after the conquest of Nisibis. Artuqid period — [ edit ] In the 11th century, Seljuq Turks and their Turkmen and Oguz allies moved into Western Armenia , culminating in the Seljuq defeat of Byzantine forces at the Battle of Manzikert in Victory at Manzikert quickly resulted in Seljuq forces controlling large parts of Anatolia and northern Mesopotamia.
This period was something of a golden age for Hisn Kayfa, with the Artuqids and their successors, the Ayyubids , building the Small Palace and the Great Palace as well as the Tigris bridge. The infrastructure, location and significance of the city helped increase trade and made Hisn Kayfa a staging post on the Silk Road. Stephen Humphreys speculates that Kaykhusrau was offered control of Amida and Hisn Kayfa in return for joining the alliance. Al-Kamil had bequeathed control of the Jazira to as-Salih Ayyub , who had been emir of Hisn Kayfa, and named his younger brother al-Adil as his heir in Egypt.
When as-Salih Ayyub died suddenly on 12 November , Turanshah had to be recalled in a hurry to take control of the Ayyubid empire. Hulagu first besieged Baghdad , which was captured on 13 February and destroyed. In , the Il-Khanate and the Mamluks signed a treaty and trade restarted. In the 14th century, the Ayyubids rebuilt the castle of Hisn Kayfa which served as their stronghold as vassals of consecutively Mamluks and Dulkadirids until they were supplanted by the Ottoman Empire in the early 16th century.
The Aq Qoyunlu dynasty was headed by Uzun Hassan from to Aq Qoyunlu territory expanded further following their defeat of the Kara Koyunlu in Iran —69 , and Uzun Hassan moved his capital to Tabriz. The shrine is currently moved to a new location to avoid inundation by the rising waters of the nearby dam.
Many of the caves are multi-storied and have their own water supply. Churches and mosques were also carved into the cliffs and numerous ancient cemeteries exist throughout the area.
The bridge over the Tigris River is considered to be the largest from the Medieval Period. Support for the bridge was built with wood in case the bridge had to be removed in order to prevent an attack. Because of this, two piles and some foundation work are all that exist of the bridge today. The Citadel has likely been used as a dwelling place for centuries. Ulu Big Mosque — With no inscriptions remaining, it is not exactly known when and by whom the mosque was built.
However, it is thought that it dates from the period of the Ayyubids who have subsequently restored the mosque in the years , and The mosque also has a minaret that has remained intact. The section of the structure which is used as a mosque today was a mausoleum in the past, containing grave remnants.
The tomb is dated to the 14th century and an epitaph on the tomb states that the tomb was restored in the Ayyubid period. The building resembles in its architectural style mausoleums in Central Asia. This shrine has been relocated to the new Hasankeyf Cultural Park in , set aside for historical artifacts impacted by the Ilisu Dam construction. Reed covered restaurants serve fresh river fish along other regional specialties With its history that spans nine civilizations, the archaeological and religious significance of Hasankeyf is considerable.
Up to 80, people in Hasankeyf are being displaced. Some of these people are being moved to a new city above the waterline. In December , following pressure from campaign groups, export credit insurers in Austria , Germany and Switzerland announced suspending their support for the project amid concern about its environmental and cultural impact and gave the Turkish government days to meet standards set by the World Bank.
As Turkey did not fulfil any of them, the three ECAs indicated in a joint press release issued on 7 July that they withdrew from the project. We will construct this dam at any cost. As a result of the resettlement program for the population, many residents of Hasankeyf moved to a Yeni Hasankeyf New Hasankeyf on a hill which was to be at the shore of the dam reservoir after the construction of the dam is terminated.
12 Bin Yıllık Dillere Destan Güzelliği ve Tarihiyle Hasankeyf’e Veda