No special status Other Comments Population studies through banding specimens of the long-tongued fruit bat and later recapturing them results in only about a 40 to 50 percent recapture rate. These experiments, conducted in the Philippines, do not show whether this pattern is due to a low survivorship rate in adults or a migration to another location Michleburgh et al. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a now extinct synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. Convergent in birds.

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Based on 1, radiotelemetry positions, mean home range for 18 individuals was 5. Activity hotspots were associated with flowering bananas, the primary food resource of least blossom bats at Kau. During the day, M. Mean day-roost area was 0. Adult males appeared to exclude conspecifics from rich, compact feeding territories in primary forest.

Overlap in home range occurred primarily in gardens and between subadults and other bats. It is particularly important to understand the resource requirements of species that perform crucial ecological functions such as pollination or seed dispersal of ecologically or economically important plant species.

The least blossom bat, Macroglossus minimus, is the smallest member 16—21 g of the family Pteropodidae Old World fruit bats in the South Pacific region. This distribution results from its ability to cross narrow Pleistocene water gaps and from a plasticity of energy that permits it to maintain populations on very small islands Bonaccorso and McNab In Papua New Guinea, M. However, M. Similarly, in Sumatra M. Our radiotelemetry study of the least blossom bat, M.

This includes similar studies of Syconycteris australis Winkelmann et al. Mist-netting and radiotelemetry were used to investigate home range, core-use area, territoriality, day-roost area, and foraging behavior of M. Materials and Methods Study area.

It forms an ha reserve at elevations between 20 and 65 m. Mean annual precipitation at nearby Nagada Harbor is 3, mm — The Biges and Kau rivers and several small tributaries with permanent water flow dissect this area of hills, plateaus, and valleys Fig. Scales for axes are in meters and are identical to those in Figs.

The study area consists of primary forest, bordered by a complex mosaic of traditional gardens, primary forest remnants, and forest in various stages of regeneration. Up to tree species may occur in a single hectare of primary forest at Kau R. Kitchings, pers. Wild bananas are common along streams and smaller drainage courses and in tree-fall light gaps.

In disturbed habitats, wild bananas survive within the forest remnants, usually in small ravines. Domestic bananas are cultivated in gardens and often persist in abandoned plots during early stages of forest regeneration. Other potential food resources for nectar bats include papaya flowers in gardens, heliconias in forest light gaps, and flowers of bat-pollinated forest trees such as Syzigium. Each bat was fitted with a color-coded plastic band A. The band passed through 2 slits cut in the patagium on either side of the forearm Bonaccorso et al.

Twenty-two bats were fitted with radiocollars: 14 adult males, 4 adult females, 2 subadult females, and 2 sub-adult males. Age class was based on the degree of closure of epiphyseal growth plates of the phalanges Kunz et al. At the time the radios were affixed, all females were nonreproductive.

Additionally, we could detect flight from modulation of the signal strength caused by the whipping motion of the trailing transmitter antenna. Bats were transported a distance of 4. At the laboratory, transmitters were attached by collars and stabilized at the back of the neck by Skinbond Surgical Cement Smith and Nephew United, Largo, Florida.

The collar consisted of wire that ran through a channel in the potting material. The exposed portions of the wire were covered by small-gauge tygon tubing, and the ends of the wire were fastened by a crimp and trimmed to remove sharp points. Complete transmitter and collar units weighed 1. We chose a somewhat larger unit size to increase battery life while retaining the position-sensitive function that makes it easier to determine if the bat is flying or roosting.

In a flight cage, bats with radios did not differ from bats without radios in activity pattern, flight duration, or feeding behavior. Radios were equipped with batteries that had expected lives of either 6 or 10 weeks. Bats fitted with radiocollars were released within 3 h of capture but were not monitored until the following night. Tracking stations were established at map reference points usually within 20— m of activity centers for each bat foraging patches, commuting lanes, or day roost.

Receivers were moved as necessary to improve reception or to record multiple bearings on a stationary bat. Bearings were taken with a handheld compass Suunto, Helsinki, Finland and were read to the nearest degree. Also, time, signal strength, and gain setting from gradations added by us to the gain dial of the receiver were recorded with each bearing.

Many positions were determined by triangulation when a bat was stationary long enough for bearings to be sighted from 2 or more reference points. Other positions were calculated from single bearings along which distance was estimated from signal strength and gain Law and Lean ; Winkelmann et al. Relationship of signal strength to distance was experimentally calibrated in the study area at standardized gain settings.

We rarely lost radio contact with a focal animal once its foraging pattern was determined. When radio contact was broken with a moving bat, contact usually was reestablished within 20 min by walking toward the bearing of the disappearing bat. A map of the study area with a superimposed zero intercept and a grid of x- and y-coordinates Fig. The total area mapped for this study encompassed 80 ha. Bradbury and S. Vehrencamp, pers. In addition, we calculated day-roost area, defined as the total area encompassed by the resting positions in foliage used during daylight hours for each bat, based on a nonprobabalistic minimum convex polygon method Odum and Kunzler ; Wilkinson and Bradbury This latter method, although it overestimates use areas compared with the Andersen Fourier method, was chosen because of the small sample sizes and small total day-roost areas.

All numerical results are reported as means and standard deviations. Results Eighteen M. Only 4 females were successfully radiotracked. Home ranges of bats tracked in and are shown in Figs. Radio contact was lost with 3 additional females on the 1st night of tracking. This bat was included in Fig. Home ranges occupied sequentially by 3 adult males are shown in Fig.

Total area of plot is ha. Bats are identified by letter and by sex. Sample size n is the number of radiotelemetry data points in each data set. Home range and core-use area. Day-roost area.


Macroglossus minimus (E.Geoffroy, 1810)

Forearm Length : up to 4. They particularly favour mangrove, where they feed on the nectar of blossoms of Sonneratia trees, and in doing so play an important role as pollinators which thereby contributes to forest regrowth in such habitats. In other forest habitats they favour the flowers of wild banana trees, and in rural areas they favour cultivated banana trees. By day, they roost alone or in small groups, typically beneath large palm leaves.



Kagazuru Long-tongued nectar bat Reproductive maturity in females is achieved at about 10 months after birth Gunnell et al. The fur on the abdomen is shorter than on the back and is paler in color. Key Behaviors motile Communication and Perception Perception Channels tactile chemical Food Macrogloesus Long-tongued fruit bats are appropriately named due to their long tongue for extracting nectar and pollen from flowers. White-winged flying fox D. Extant species of family Pteropodidae.


Long-tongued nectar bat


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